Who’s afraid of MSG? or Why 1 billion Chinese do not wake up with a headache every day

Well, I am decidedly NOT afraid of it anymore.

Monosodium Glutamate, aka MSG, has a terrible reputation in the West, which is really unfortunate as that reputation is entirely undeserved.  Since I now live in China where MSG is used all the time,  I decided that I should find out more about it.

Forgive me if I now have to give you a little bit of a history lesson – but I think you will find it interesting.

Way back in 1908 a certain Professor Kikunae Ikeda  realised that konbu seaweed (much used in Japanese cuisine ) contained high quantities of a naturally ocurring amino acid called glutamate.  Foodstuffs which contained this amino acid were much tastier than other foods. This quality he refered to as ‘umami’  – deliciousness.  It is present in asparagus, mushrooms, tomatos, parmesan cheese, smoked fish, the browned exterior of roasted meats and several other foods but in much smaller quantities than in konbu and various fish broths. Professor Ikeda set about trying to manufacture glutamate, and he eventually patented a crystalline form of glutamate which was stabilized with salt – MSG was born.  Realising its potential for enhancing food, he set up a company to manufacture it commercially and called it Ajinomoto (which means ‘essence of taste’). The company is still the largest world producer of MSG – more than a million tons annually -and exports it globally.

Knowledge of MSG must have spread like wild-fire all over the Far East as it was taken up by the Chinese, Indonesians, Malays, Koreans, Vietnamese and quickly became a kitchen staple along with salt and pepper, used in both domestic and restaurant cooking.

Through eastern ethnic restaurants MSG crept into the west.  Then, in 1968,  a Chinese American, Dr Robert Kwok wrote a single letter to The New England Journal of Medicine saying that eating Chinese food made his neck go numb and gave him headaches, and that he attributed this (with no scientific evidence) to the use of MSG in the food. He refered to his symptoms as ‘Chinese Restaurant Syndrome’.  As a result of that one letter, MSG has been damned in the west – quite unjustifiably.    People started claiming that they were ‘allergic’ to MSG, but there is no solid evidence to back such claims (so many people claim to have food allergies to cover the fact that they don’t like something or other) true allergy to MSG is incredibly rare.  To cover themselves, and to make their products seem more ‘natural’, some western food manufacturers started printing ‘No added MSG’ on packaging, thus re-inforcing the mistaken idea that MSG is a bad thing – the same is true of some restaurants, particularly oriental restaurants in the west who realised that MSG had a bad image, and so, to gain an advantage over their local competition would say that they cooked without MSG – though without the food being subject to chemical analysis a diner would almost certainly never know whether it was used or not.

I could fill this entire blog post with a list of the umpteen studies that have been done which prove that MSG does NOT produce such symptoms, that MSG is perfectly safe to consume etc, but I will spare you all that. If you want to know more about the research go to the report published by the University of Wageningen (Netherlands) 2003 which gives a good short overview of all the scientific investigations by various bodies such as the USFDA, WHO, EU SCF, etc, which have been done in the past 50 years.   What I found  interesting is that in 2000 a team of scientists at the University of Miami discovered that receptors on the human tongue, the purpose of which had never been determined, were glutamate receptors – human beings need to recognise glutamate as it usually indicates the presence of protein which is one of our essential dietary needs,  amongst other things glutamate is also used as a neurotransmitter in the brain.

Now it is time for me to ‘fess up (as the Americans would say) – for the past two years I have been experimenting with the use of MSG when cooking for my family and friends!  It is hardly a scientific study, but I have noticed that a dish containing a small amount of MSG always gets more compliments on its taste than one without it – and better still, because MSG ‘boosts’ the flavour I can cut down/out salt and fat in a dish without diminishing flavour  – and that is better for health reasons.  MSG has one other sterling quality, it is self-limiting. That is to say that when you have eaten enough umami-rich food your appetite diminishes noticably and you stop eating.

There are several brands of MSG; the one I use (purely because I like the decorative tin!) is Ve Tsin,  and like several other brands it calls itself a ‘Gourmet Powder’ but in point of fact it is pure MSG.   ‘Mushroom Powder’ which is widely available (and much used in Korean and Vietnamese cooking) is also MSG.

So if you have been ‘anti’ MSG because you have heard some of the myths and prejudice about it, please think again, and  to coin a phrase:

Feel the fear and eat it anyway.

About herschelian

Started my 60s by moving to China with my DH. Surprised to find I am still here in Beijing eight years later - still finding it an adventure!
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46 Responses to Who’s afraid of MSG? or Why 1 billion Chinese do not wake up with a headache every day

  1. Kit says:

    Have to admit to falling for all the rumours about it being bad for you. Also heard it was addictive and made you want to eat more of everything – in particular salty chips and junk food. Now I have to go and read the research!

  2. Kit says:

    I’ve shared your post on Facebook – hope that’s OK – much interest already from the SA food blogging network!

  3. Dan Griffin says:

    Another interesting fact involving MSG. Did you know that kethcup is as ubiquitous and popular as it is because it one of just a few foodstuffs that contains all 5 main tastes – sweet, sour, bitter, salty… and the delicious umami!

  4. herschelian says:

    Kit – thank you for your very measured response – I have had a certain amount of flack on my personal email from people who say things like ‘well how come when I eat MSG I always get a headache’ – to which my answer is ‘you’ve read the press so if you know you are eating food containing MSG you EXPECT to get a headache, and so you do – it’s psychosomatic’ because all the research in double-blind experiments shows people don’t have measurable reactions to MSG. Also, a good deal of really intereanti sting experimentation is now being done with elderly people who do not eat healthily, using MSG in food to encourage them to prefer healthier options..watch this space.
    Dan – yes tomato ketchup contains MSG which may well make it seem more appealing, but those who consume large amounts of ketchup usually do so when eating bland foods or high carb, low umami foods.
    The anti-MSG predjudice is strong and very ill-informed.
    BTW I am NOT suggesting it be added to all food, or that it be consumed in large quantities – everything in moderation!

  5. John Rollason says:

    Well said, Myth-buster Jo!

  6. Penny says:

    I love MSG! I’ve been eating it since I was a kid and it’s a staple in my kitchen. Greatly enhances food flavor.

  7. John Rollason says:

    What is interesting for me is that I have no recollemcyion of posting the ‘myth-busting’ comment above, must have eaten too much MSG! Anyway, I support it. Being a runner & accustomed to carbo-loading before races, I’ll be happy to spice up the carbs with some MSG! Go it Jo & stick to your guns!

  8. Mickey says:

    This report is very misleading. If you are talking about MSG as a natural occurring compound, then fine, it’s not going to hurt you. However, most of what we are consuming, as in added MSG is synthetic. Whenever you add anything synthetic to your body it doesn’t know how to process, therefore it’s, at the very least, not going to be GOOD for you. If you read the report he has posted that is addressing natural MSG, synthetic MSG, which is most commonly used is harmful. There are many, many, many studies that conclude this. http://www.naturalnews.com/034031_MSG_health_effects.html

    Lastly, the FDA and WHO are not the best authorities to follow when it comes to food. They let aspartame, glyphosate, tartrazine, wood fillers and artifical colors/flavourings in our food. So I call BS on this article. Sorry dude.

    • Jj says:

      That website is very obviously biased, they don’t provide a link to the study they mention, and all of their references at the end of the article are similar biased websites. The Wikipedia article on MSG cites multiple studies that show at very few, if any, people have any reaction to MSG at all, and the toxic dose in humans is 5 times that of ordinary table salt. The study cited in the article you linked was possibly a toxicity test – if we are going by that measure, you should probably avoid oxygen and H2O as well!

    • crusche says:

      It was beginning to feel like reading a cult post feedback here until your response Mickey – thankfully there is some logic applied.

      MSG, like HFCS, and many other additives to skew our plate’s natural tendencies and many of these additives have gone without proper unbiased testing for either argument’s representation. Regardless of personal preference, subpar “scientific” studies, or the delay in research due to many lobbying faculties (FDA is so far from being a positive influence with skewed reporting and censored published research) MSG negatively impacts some people and to a great extent specifically with the presence of migraines.

      The only reason I read through this lamentable article is due to my search for a solution to a loved one’s reaction to this compound. They suffer extreme migraines from MSG, as we have unfortunately tested with varying foods. Now we are in China, and despite taking the caution of dining at an upscale Japanese restaurant somehow this ingredient has been ingested because of the relaxed attitude towards this product.

      People are mostly idiots, but in this day and age they are becoming far more resourceful in research and deconstructing an argument by stating that “As a result of that one letter, MSG has been damned in the west” – I’m afraid people detest this product because of what it does to them.

      Although, there is minimal substantiated claims recording this reaction from scientific posts, the people who suffer these “reactions” care very little for the claims being made and even less for friends who “experiment” with it in their cooking to make a statement to support a pitiful blog post.

      If MSG does not effect you, then consider yourself lucky, like those individuals who are less sensitive to cigarette smoke, tainted water, and various other additives to our food.

      Anyone who promotes a product that “masks” the reality of a consumed product’s taste is already probably on path shaded by a myriad of nutritional falsehoods.

      If there is anything I could do to prevent people from succumbing to the tendency of “it doesn’t bother me NOW and it’s not a problem claimed by the FDA or WHO, then I’m “good”” I would. Unfortunately, there are many truths that science will not resolve for a delayed period and this is one of them.

      Just look at saccharin and aspartame, the FDA, still after proven research of the cancer-stimulating chemicals, completely supports both and you find it in many things.

      I am thankful for the scrutiny emerging towards the FDA and global organisations for it is giving way to local, farm-raised products using organic methods – an industry that had withered in the path of mass product Roundup Ready crops. No labels and lab reports really talk about the health risks of extended exposure to Roundup-exposed plants either but people have figured it out and are demanding higher quality, REAL food.

      MSG does not fall in this category and there is a reason it is found in the cheapest quality of foods worldwide.

      Think about it.

  9. Great piece. My sentiments exactly. People get too worked up over additives that they perceive to be “unnatural” or “artificial”, instead of focusing on the real issues that endanger our food supply.

  10. bambooash says:

    Ever wondered why the Japanese have such great record of long lives?
    Great blog. Just stumbled over the following article as well.

    • Maddy says:

      Sorry but many people are sensitive to it. It may be a genetic defect which is not common in people of Asian decent. But I get a whopper of a migraine which lasts 3 days if I consume it. Accent season salt is sold in the USA and it is MSG. I have cooked same dish and changed only that ingredient. Headache if MSG is added, none of it is not. Glutamate can be excitotoxic in people with the disposition towards epilepsy or migraine. It is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as MS, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s. Perhaps if the seaweed you mentioned was used for hundreds of years there was a genetic adaptation. It could also be dosage related. Way too many people have confirmed symptoms immediately after eating it by mistake when a label camouflaged as maltodextrin or yeast extract, or “flavor enhancer”.

      • Stephanie Ah says:

        @Maddy – There are actually over 40(!) different names that MSG can be called on labels – legally! https://www.truthinlabeling.org/hiddensources.html
        Also, although I have never actually had a headache after consuming MSG (I am not really prone to headaches to begin with…) I do immediately know if/when I have consumed MSG. First of all, within a few minutes, I get intensely thirsty. An unquenchable thirst that goes on for hours. I drink tons of water and just keep needing more. I also get very sleepy after a meal containing MSG.

        Growing up, my mother would make chicken soup, seasoned with Accent (MSG) every Sunday for lunch. It tasted fantastic! We always had seconds. The whole family. But, after lunch, we all ended up flaked out and sleeping away most of the afternoon. We had no idea that it was because of the Accent. We thought we were just “taking it easy”, “relaxing” on a lazy Sunday afternoon…

  11. minx19 says:

    I find it odd that people don’t cook with MSG. In my country, Nigeria, it’s a staple in our cooking. I’ve eaten food prepared with MSG since I was a kid along with other members of my family. Never had a headache from it. I can’t imagine cooking without it cos the food won’t taste good. In fact, if one eats food and it’s not tasty, you get asked if you added MSG. With brand names such as Knorr and Maggi.

    • herschelian says:

      Ni hao Minx19 – thank you for visiting my blog!
      I didn’t know that Nigerians use MSG in their cooking, but I am not surprised because they love tasty food, nothing bland! I am convinced that this ‘fear’ of MSG is just a western fad which some people have blown out of all proportion:-)

    • Kuukua says:

      Hi minx 19. A few months ago, i would have agreed with you perfectly but I’m a living breathing proof that msg is a problem. I’m a 30 year old Ghanaian lady who used msg all her life until a few months ago when i started i started getting serious heart palpitations after eating certain foods. One day, after having dinner at a Chinese restaurant , i fainted from anaphylactic shock n was rushed to the emergency room. Long story short. I went to the ER five times before my doctor, dietitian and i were able to narrow the cause to msg. Even the tiniest bit of it gives me heart palpitations, headaches and heaviness in my chest.

      Trust me, It’s true. Msg does have an adverse effect on some people. It takes getting used to especially for someone like me who has used it all her life.

  12. Dwight says:

    Excellent article! I concur entirely with this article. I have prepared and also eaten meals with and without msg and the difference in taste is astonishing. I have heard the myths but I never bought into them simply because I like the superior taste of foods prepared with msg. Now that I know that background to all the myths going around I will continue to enjoy my msg prepared food with greater comfort and satisfaction, while pointing those still hung up on the myth, to the facts, for them to ‘free themselves’ if they so desire.

  13. Elene says:

    Im curious which brands of msg originate from which foods? I just read on the ajinomoto website that their brand of msg is now made from corn, not the original seaweed concoction of my grandmother’s kitchen. I have a severe intolerance to corn products and while on a customized Alcat rotation diet, I have not been able to avoid corn – every week comes the realization that a common ingredient is made of corn – white vinegars, pill/vitamin capsules, asorbic acid (vitamin c) etc. Interesting to note I do get headaches and muscle aches as well as a depressed mood with corn, and its not psychosomatic as corn and about 70 other foods cause my body to attack itself as confirmed by blood tests. (FYI Anyone who once followed the SAD or Standard American Diet is prone to this. Im asian but was born and grew up in the states on processed foods when i wasnt eating traditional asian foods via mom’s home cooking from scratch.)

  14. Jim Duncalf says:

    MSG is not a natural product. Contrary to this article there is a large body of work to suggest that MSG causes several health issues, mostly neurological. see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tTSvlGniHok

    • herschelian says:

      The youtube talk that you give suggesting ‘there is a large body of work to suggest that MSG causes several health issues’ is a talk by retired neurosurgeon Russell Blaylock;
      Russell Blaylock’s views are considered dubious; for instance:

      Russell Blaylock is a trained neurosurgeon who considers himself an expert on nutrition and toxins in food, cookware, teeth, and vaccines. Contrary to the vast bulk of the scientific evidence, Blaylock maintains that vaccines such as the H1N1 vaccine are dangerous or ineffective; that dental amalgams and fluoridated water are harmful to our health; and that aluminum cookware, aspartame, and MSG are toxic substances causing brain damage.1, 2, Ironically, Blaylock perpetuates the myth that science-based medicine is not interested in prevention, despite the fact that immunization, which he opposes, prevents more disease and saves more lives than just about any other medical activity.
      Read the whole critique here: http://skepdic.com/blaylock.html

  15. Unbelievable how people can be so biased and blind!
    I have been living in China for more than 8 years now. I am married to a Chinese who doesn’t care about MSG. We have a restaurant now here in China and they use MSG. I didn’t care about it before too and never had problems.
    But, I am becoming healthier: do a lot of sports, take supplements to clean toxins out of my body (living in China I am afraid of certain toxins). And now, every time I eat in our or another Chinese restaurant, I have a bad stomach ache, my muscles and bones hurt and I feel very weak. I first didn’t know what it was, but I know it’s MSG, because when I ask to put no MSG, I am perfectly fine with our food. I know now that my body has been numbed throughout the years because of all the toxins I have been putting in my body. Now, that I am cleaning my gut, I am more sensitive to additives. I am glad I am because now I realize what I did to my body for years and who knows what damage I did to it over all these years. We have to be conscious that our bodies don’t react for years, but then all of a sudden, it had enough.
    I know that I will never consume MSG ever again! I don’t want to end up with a terminal disease when I turn 50.

  16. NotoMsg says:

    Recent studies shows that MSG DOES elevates blood pressure, and has short term side effects. To me anything that mess up your hormones will mess up your body. Its not a myth anymore, its a fact! Google it.

  17. chi says:

    the real question is how synthetic do you want to be? although, I doubt its as safe as you think, i do not think its as dangerous as the other team thinks. However, in the end, it is just a synthetic chemical mass produced for profit. Since most people who tend to care about MSG, are somewhat into healthy living, I will say that taking any synthetic man made chemicals into your body, treating them as food, is not good in the long term. Every now and then, sure, no problems. but adding it to your families and friends meals seems a bit over the top. Daily use? sounds like an addiction. Seems to me, that food is the most addictive substance on the planet. look at how many obese people there are in the west, and it is slowly spreading to “third world” counties as they start to have more disposable income. Cocaine would also have a similar effect, ask coca cola. people just loved that stuff, and want more of it. I do also belive that we should all be allowed to put what we want in our bodies, including MSG and Cocaine. But you should be well educated on what your putting in your bodies and the possible effects, side effects, and the effects of long term use.
    I will also say that MSG is not food. Its not a spice. Its a synthetic chemical. Yes, all things are made of chemicals, but some are made by nature and meant to be consumed, and some are not. Sure, its in some foods naturally, and Im quite sure there is a reason its levels in those foods is so low. Its not meant to be added by the teaspoon.
    Generally speaking, part of the worldwide obesity problem is both mental disorders, such as depression, as well as pure addiction to taste gratification. So making food taste better, may not be the best on this front either.

    I would never add it to any meal I cooked, just as i would not at yoga mat chemicals to my bread to make it more conditioned. At the end of the day, it really comes down to…. Am i treating my body like a temple? or just gratifying all of my carnal desires as much as possible?

  18. Vanessa says:

    My bad reaction to MSG is not psychosomatic! I’m happy for you that you can eat it and feel ok. it does make things tastier. Let’s all be aware that whatever we research will support what we already believe, if we are not careful. You can find many articles saying MSG is ok, and many saying it is not. Maybe take a little time and read about the problems with MSG before you decide that it’s not hurting you. Simply not reacting noticably to something does not mean it’s ok for you. Cigarette smoking comes to mind. I believe you when you and others say you feel no negative reaction. I believe it when others say it is not ok for them, because it is not ok for me. I have learned to be open to the idea of others having a different reaction from me, and not disbelieving them simply because I haven’t had the same problems. The way you e presented your opinion makes it sound like a fact, which it is not!

  19. Cristobal says:

    This is complete and utter bullshit. MSG spikes your insulin 300% more than sugar. Professor Kikunae Ikeda is just a business man who wanted an empire. Money, money money. He didn’t give a shit about health. Do yourself a favor and check your blood sugar levels 45min after you consume MSG and tell me it’s still as harmless as you think.

    • herschelian says:

      I am scrupulous about letting anyone comment whether they agree with my POV or not, and usually I leave it at that; however saying that MSG ‘spikes your insulin 300% more than sugar’ is such a wildly inaccurate statement it cannot be left unchallenged. Please give the scientific evidence you have for that statement.
      Monosodium glutimate has NO connection to diabetes or sugar. It is exactly what it says – 1 molecule of glutamate (a naturally occurring amino acid ) stabilized with 1 molecule of sodium (as in sodium chloride).
      If it is as harmful as you imply, then much of the population of East Asia would be seriously unwell – and they are not.
      However you are entitled to avoid consuming it if you prefer to do so.

  20. loron says:

    I love how you need to come up with evidence if someone has a bad reaction to MSG. Some people are adversely impacted by it like me. While I was living in SF I would go to Tu Lan for Vietnamese food. Eating there 3 to 4 days a week the MSG caused my liver to shut down. I thought I contracted HEP A or something. When I put a food to my tongue and my tongue cant taste it, like Doritos, its not good for my liver. I dont need proof I have my experience. And if it doesnt bother you that means nothing for other people. Wow. Seriuously?!

  21. fcline says:

    Some people react to MSG, some don’t. Just like Gluten. I don’t react to MSG except that I find I tend to overeat certain foods that contain MSG. The enhanced flavor makes the food addictive for me, so I would rather not have it for that reason. Also, I assume that a restaurant that does not use MSG is probably more concerned with the quality of their ingredients due to their inability to rely on MSG to “bring out the flavor”. Not necessarily an accurate assumption on my part, but that’s the way my brain processes that information.

  22. Jez says:

    Where is your scientific evidence in this article? All you have done here is given very brief history lesson of the discovery of MSG, and a very poor and lacking credibility explanation of how MSG’s name was tarnished in the west, but no scientific evidence for both for or against. A pointless read. As far as I’m concern, if a restaurant needs an enhancer for its dishes, it isn’t a good restaurant.

    • herschelian says:

      Jez – I gave links to all the in-depth research that has been done vis a vis MSG; please read those links. If you still disagree you are entitled to do so, but please don’t say I gave no scientific evidence. I did.

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  24. Tammy says:

    I thought the stigma was that it causes cancer? Specifically, colon , intestinal and stomach cancer?

    • herschelian says:

      So many accusations of ill health are leveled at MSG, but this is the first time I’ve heard of colon, intestinal and stomach cancer given as a result of consuming it.
      I have scoured the internet looking for solid evidence of this claim and found nothing, can you -Tammy – provide it?
      What I can say is that I have lived in China for many years, MSG is in very wide use here, likewise in Japan, Viet Nam, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, and Indonesia – the numbers of people consuming it are in the 10s of millions, and there is no evidence of increased rates of such cancers. Indeed, the Chinese are very prone to food scares, and if there were even the slightest evidence for MSG causing such cancers it would be all over the media out here, over the internet etc and consumers would be dropping it instantly (as they have done during other food scares.)

  25. E Hendersin says:

    Everyone’s body is unique and complex. I become very ill when I eat MSG. I get a migraine and become very nauseated.

  26. Nia Lorre says:

    The ubiquitous red and white canister of Accent was a staple in my house growing up. I think the only reaction I personally ever had may have been due to the sodium, not the glutamate. Like a lot of women, too much salt equals bloat.
    I found this blog post looking for places near me to buy MSG as it has been a very, very long time since I did and now I need that specific flavor enhancement for cooking.

  27. Stephanie Az says:

    Actually, I think MSG’s bad reputation is 100% deserved. It is a flavour enhancer used to make terrible quality products taste good. Sure, it may be considered “safe” for most people who don’t suffer an allergic reaction from it, but that doesn’t make it healthy or ok. MSG raises insulin by 300%. When cosumed here and there, over time, contributes to insulin related diseases such as diabetes, hypoglycemia, insulin resistance, mood disorders, dementia, and so on.

  28. P M says:

    I developed severe allergies to high sodium/salt foods at age 19. Violent sneezing and nose running like a faucet all day. I had to stop eating at Chinese restaurants because of the high-sodium MSG. Even when I requested “no MSG”, it was still too salty and I would get the reaction (but I doubt they went through the trouble of making separate no-MSG dishes for every one of their meal options). No more deli meats, no more baked ham, no more pretzels or potato chips. Most processed foods now contain high amounts of sodium and/or salt and I can’t eat them. Many restaurant meals are heavy on the salt. I’ve had to cook my own meals (I do add a sprinkling of sea salt) for the most part which I enjoy anyway.

  29. Kathleen Castrataro says:

    You are so wrong

  30. Julie M says:

    I am HIGHLY ALLERGIC to MSG so much that since a child, I’ve had to carry an epi-pen with me in case I ingested it. It will immediately swell my tongue and throat shut…so, NO….IT IS NOT HARMLESS. However, it has turned me into a fantastic cook, as there aren’t many places where I can eat out, that aren’t upscale.

    • herschelian says:

      I am sorry to hear that you are highly allergic to MSG, how were you diagnosed?
      You are really quite unusual, as although some people claim to be allergic, when it is investigated it turns out to be some other ingredient that is causing them problems, the number of people who are truly allergic to it is relatively small. If one eats Parmesan cheese, the crispy brown edges of roast meats etc, one is, in effect, consuming MSG, and no-one seems to complain about that causing them problems. You are fortunate your allergy was diagnosed and that you can carry an epi-pen in case you might inadvertently ingest some.

  31. It’s really cool that you got more compliments on the taste of foods that you cooked with MSG. I really want to eat more Chinese food, my wife is hesitant towards MSG. I’ll share this information with her so that she knows that MSG makes food taste better.

  32. herschelian says:

    Chinese food is generally delicious, (with some exceptions – to my mind!) Please tell your wife not to worry about MSG, it is not a dangerous substance, MILLIONS of Chinese/Japanese/Koreans/ Vietnamese/Malaysians etc consume it in their food everyday with no harm done. Also not all Chinese chefs use it; some do – some don’t, and you would be hard pressed to tell which was which! Just go to a reputable Chinese restaurant and enjoy your meal!

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